The case study approach presented is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary problem within its real-life context. Understanding the problem and its solution requires integrating a myriad of mutually dependent variables or pieces of evidence that are likely to be gathered at least partially by personal observation. Although a common definition of case studies exists, one may encounter various types of case studies (see Table 2.1). In order to make clear to which type of case study the introduced methods of knowledge integration should be applied, we will briefly describe different types of case studies. A detailed review of case studies is given by Yin (1994). A crucial distinction must be made between holistic and embedded case studies (Yin, 1994, p. 41). A holistic case study is shaped by a thoroughly qualitative approach that relies on narrative, phenomenological descriptions. Themes and hypotheses may be important but should remain subordinate ...

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