Encyclopedia Entry

Cipp Model (Context, Input, Process, Product)

Daniel L. Stufflebeam

The CIPP Model for evaluation is a comprehensive framework for guiding formative and summative evaluations of programs, projects, personnel, products, institutions, and systems. This model was introduced by Daniel Stufflebeam in 1966 to guide mandated evaluations of U.S. federally funded projects because these emergent projects could not meet requirements for controlled, variable-manipulating experiments, which then were considered the gold standard for program evaluations. Since then, the model has been widely applied and further developed. Those applying or contracting others to apply the model have included government officials, foundation officers, program and project staffs, international assistance personnel, school administrators, physicians, military leaders, and evaluators. The model is configured for use in internal evaluations conducted by an organization's evaluators, in self-evaluations conducted by project teams or individual service providers, and in contracted external evaluations. It has been employed throughout the United States and around the world and applies to short-term and long-term ...

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