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Dictionary

TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 ERRORS

David Brockington

The category of error associated with the incorrect retention of a hypothesis. Error results when inference testing of a sample population suggests the retention of the hypothesis, when the unobserved true value present in the universe from which the sample was drawn would call for the rejection of the hypothesis. A Type 1 error occurs when the null hypothesis is falsely rejected, while a Type 2 error occurs when the research hypothesis is falsely rejected (thus wrongly retaining the null hypothesis). Essentially, Type 1 errors are ‘false-positive’ findings, while Type 2 errors are ‘false-negative’ findings. The logic behind Type 1 and 2 errors rests on the underlying nature of random probability sampling. As a sample is at best representative of the larger universe under study, the decision whether or not to Hypothesis ...

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